Central Sensitization

Apkarian, A. V. (2011). The brain in chronic pain: Clinical implications. Pain Management, 1, 577-586.

Apkarian, A. V., Baliki, M. N., & Geha, P. Y. (2009). Towards a theory of chronic pain. Progress in Neurobiology, 87, (2), 81-97.

Baliki, M. N., Chialvo, D. R., Geha, P. Y., Levy, R. M., Harden, R. N., Parrish, T. B., & Apkarian, A. V. (2006). Chronic pain and the emotional brain: Specific brain activity associated with spontaneous fluctuations of intensity of chronic back pain. Journal of Neuroscience, 26, 12165-12173.

Borsook, D. & Becerra, L. R. (2006). Breaking down the barriers: fMRI applications in pain, analgesia and analgesics. Molecular Pain, 2, 30.

Chapman, C. R., Tuckett, R. P., & Song, C. W. (2008). Pain and stress in a systems perspective: Reciprocal neural, endocrine and immune interactions. Journal of Pain, 9, 122-145.

Curatolo, M., Arendt-Nielsen, L., & Petersen-Felix, S. (2006). Central hypersensitivity in chronic pain: Mechanisms and clinical implications. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 17, 287-302.

Flor, H., Braun, C., Elbert, T., & Birbaumer, N. (1997). Extensive reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in chronic back pain patients. Neuroscience Letters, 224, 5-8.

Latremoliere, A., & Woolf, C. J. (2009). Central sensitization: A generator of pain hypersensitivity by central neural plasticity. Journal of Pain, 10, 895-926.

Phillips, K, & Clauw, D. J. (2011). Central pain mechanisms in chronic pain states – maybe it is all in their head. Best Practice and Research in Clinical Rheumatology, 25, 141-154.

Woolf, C. J. (2011). Central sensitization: Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Pain, 152, (3 Suppl), S2-15.

Woolf, C. J. (2007). Central sensitization: Uncovering the relation between pain and plasticity. Anesthesiology, 106, 864-867.

Woolf, C. J., & Salter, M. W. (2000). Neuronal plasticity: Increasing the gain in pain. Science, 288, 1765-1768.

Yunus, M. B. (2007). Fibromyalgia and overlapping disorders: The unifying concept of central sensitivity syndromes. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 36, 339-356.

Chronic Pain Syndromes

Turk, D. A., & Okifuji, A. (2002). Psychological factors in chronic pain: Evolution and revolution. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 70, 678-690.

Effectiveness Studies: Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Programs — Reviews & Meta-Analyses

Clark, T. S. (2000). Interdisciplinary treatment of chronic pain: Is it worth the money? Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 13, 240-243.

Flor, H. & Frydrich, T., Turk, D. C. (1992). Efficacy of multidisciplinary pain treatment centers: A meta-analytic review. Pain, 49, 221-230.

Gatchel, R., J., & Okifuji, A. (2006). Evidence-based Scientific Data Documenting the Treatment and Cost-Effectiveness of Comprehensive Pain Programs for Chronic Non-Malignant Pain. Journal of Pain, 7, 779-793.

Guzman, J., Esmail, R., Karjalainen, K., Malmivaara, A., Irvin, E., & Bombardier, C. (2001). Multidisciplinary Rehabilitation for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review. British Medical Journal, 322, 1511-1516.

Hauser, W., Bernardy, K., Arnold, B., Offenbacher, M., & Schiltenwolf, M. (2009). Efficacy of multicomponent treatment in fibromyalgia syndrome: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 61, 216-224.

Neusch, E., Hauser, W., Bernardy, K., Barth, J. & Juni, P. (2013). Comparative efficacy of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in fibromyalgia syndrome: Network meta-analysis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 72, 955-962.

Stanos, S., & Houle, T. T. (2006). Multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary management of chronic pain. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 17, 435-450.

Turk, D. C. (2002). Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for patients with chronic pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 18, 355-365.

Effectiveness Studies: Chronic Pain Rehabilitation Programs — Clinical Trials

Busch, H., Bodin, L., Bergstrom, G., & Jensen, I. B. (2011). Patterns of sickness absence a decade after pain-related multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Pain, 152, 1727-1733.

Friedrich, M., Gittler, G., Arendasy, M., & Friedrich, K. M. (2005). Long-term effect of a combined exercise and motivational program on the level of disability of patients with chronic low back pain. Spine, 30, 995-1000.

Jensen, I. B., Busch, H., Bodin, L., Hagberg, J., Nygren, A., & Bergstrom, G. (2009). Cost-effectiveness of two rehabilitation programmes for neck and back pain patients: A seven year follow-up. Pain, 142, 202-208.

Lang, E., Liebig, K., Kastner, S., Neundorfer, B., & Heuschmann, P. (2003). Multidisciplinary rehabilitation versus usual care for chronic low back pain in the community: Effects on quality of life. Spine Journal, 3, 270-276.

Oslund, S., Robinson, R. C., Clark, T. C., Garofalo, J. P., Behnk, P., Walker, B., Walker, K. E., Gatchel, R. J., & Noe. C. E. (2009). Long-term effectiveness of a comprehensive pain management program: Strengthening the case for interdisciplinary care. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 22, (3), 211-214.

Patrick, L. E., Altmaier, E. M., & Found, E. M. (2004). Long-term outcomes in multidisciplinary treatment of chronic low back pain: Results of a 13-year follow-up. Spine, 29, 850-855.

Rome, J. D., Townsend, C. O., Bruce, B. K., Sletten, C. D., Luedtke, C. A., & Hodgson, J. E. (2004). Chronic noncancer pain rehabilitation with opioid withdrawal: Comparison of treatment outcomes based on opioid use status at admission. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 79, 759-768.

Westman, A., Linton, S. J., Ohrvik, J., Wahlen, P., Theorell, P., & Leppert, J. (2010). Controlled 3-year follow-up of a multidisciplinary chronic pain rehabilitation program in primary health care. Disability and Rehabilitation, 32, 307-316.

Effectiveness Studies: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy — Reviews & Meta-Analyses

Butler, A. C., Chapman, J. E., Forman, E. M., & Beck, A. T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy:A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31.

Morley, S., Eccelston, C., & Williams, A. (1999). Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy and behavior therapy in adults with chronic pain, excluding headache. Pain, 80, 1-13.

Glombiewski, J. A., Sawyer, A. T., Gutermann, J. Koenig, K., Rief, W., & Hofman, S. G. (2010). Psychological treatments for fibromyalgia: A Meta-analysis. Pain, 151, 280-295.

Hoffman, B. M., Papas, R. K., Chatkoff, D. K., & Kerns, R. D. (2007). Meta-analysis of psychological interventions for chronic low back pain. Health Psychology, 26, 1-9.

Effectiveness Studies: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy — Clinical Trials

Salomons, T. V., Moayedi, M., Erpelding, N., & Davis, K. D. (2014). A brief cognitive-behavioral intervention for pain reduces secondary hyperalgesia. Pain, 155, 1446-1452. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2014.02.012

Shpaner, M., Kelly, C., Lieberman, G., Perelman, H., Davis, M., Keefe, F. J., & Naylor, M. R. (2014). Unlearning chronic pain: A randomized controlled trial to investigate changes in intrinsic brain connectivity following Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Neuroimage: Clinical, 5, 36-376. doi: 1016/j.nicl.2014.07.008

Thieme, K, Flor, H., & Turk, D. C. (2006). Psychological treatment in fibromyalgia syndrome: Efficacy of operant behavioural and cognitive behavioral treatments. Arthritis Research & Therapy, 8, R121. doi:10.1186/ar2010

Effectiveness Studies: Epidural Steroid Injections — Reviews & Meta-Analyses

Henschke, N., Kuijpers, T., Rubinstein, S. M., van Middelkoop, M., Ostelo, R., Verhagen, A., Koes, B. W., & van Tulder, M. W. (2010). Injection therapy and denervation procedures for chronic low-back pain: A systematic review. European Spine Journal, 19, 1425-1449.

Staal, J. B., de Bie, R., de Vet, H. C., Hildebrandt, J., & Nelemans, P. (Updated March 30, 2007). Injection therapy for subacute and chronic low back pain. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2008 (3). Retrieved April 22, 2012.

van Tulder, M. W., Koes, B., Seitsalo, S., & Malmivaara, A. (2006). Outcomes of invasive treatment strategies in low back pain and sciatica: An evidence based review. European Spine Journal, 15, S82-S89.

Effectiveness Studies: Epidural Steroid Injections — Clinical Trials

Arden, N. K., Price, C., Reading, I., Stubbing, J., Hazelgrove, J., Dunne, C., Michel, M., Rogers, P., & Cooper C. (2005). A multicentre randomized controlled trial of epidural corticosteroid injections for sciatica: The WEST study. Rheumatology, 44, 1399-1406.

Ng, L., Chaudhary, N., & Sell, P. (2005). The efficacy of corticosteroids in periradicular infiltration in chronic radicular pain: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Spine, 30, 857-862.

Effectiveness Studies: Knee Injections — Reviews & Meta-Analyses

Arroll, B., & Goodyear-Smith, F. (2004). Corticosteroid injections for osteoarthritis of the knee: Meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 328, 869.

Effectiveness Studies: Knee Surgeries — Clinical Trials

Kirkley, A., Birmingham, T. B., Litchfield, R. B., Giffin, R., Willits, K. R., Wong, C. J., Feagan, B. G., Donner, A., Griffin, S. H., D’Ascanio, L. M., Pope, J. E., & Fowler, P. J. (2008). A randomized trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee. New England Journal of Medicine, 359, 1097-1107.

Moseley, J. B., O’Malley, K., Petersen, N. J., Menke, T. J., Brody, B. A., Kuykendall, D. H., Hollingsworth, J. C., Ashton, C. M., & Wray, N. P. (2002). A controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 81-88.

Effectiveness Studies: Opioid Management — Reviews & Meta-Analyses

Ballantyne, J. C., & Mao, J. (2003). Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain. New England Journal of Medicine, 349, 1943-1953.

Chou, R., Ballantyne, J. C., Fanciullo, G. J., Fine, P. G., & Miaskowski, C. (2009). Research gaps on use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain: Findings from a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society and American Academy of Pain Medicine clinical practice guideline. Journal of Pain, 10, 147-159.

Martell, B. A., O’Connor, P. G., Kerns, R. D., Becker, W. C., Morales, K. H., Kosten, T. R., Fiellin. D. A. (2007). Systematic review: Opioid treatment for chronic back pain: Prevalence, efficacy, and association with addiction. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146, 116-127.

Effectiveness Studies: Opioid Management — Clinical Trials

Kidner, C. L., Mayer, T. G., & Gatchel, R. G. (2009). Higher opioid doses predict poorer functional outcomes in patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 91, 919-927.

Effectiveness Studies: Rhizotomy (Radiofrequency Neuroablation) — Clinical Trials

Henschke, N., Kuijpers, T., Rubinstein, S. M., van Middelkoop, M., Ostelo, R., Verhagen, A., Koes, B. W., & van Tulder, M. W. (2010). Injection therapy and denervation procedures for chronic low-back pain: A systematic review. European Spine Journal, 19, 1425-1449.

Leclaire, R., Fortin, L., Lambert. R., Bergeron, Y. M., & Rosignol, M. (2001). Radiofrequency facet joint denervation in the treatment of low back pain: A placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess efficacy. Spine, 26, 1411-1416.

van Wijk, R. M., Geurts, J. W., Wynne, H. J., Hammink, E., Buskens, E., Lousberg, R., Knape, J. T., & Groen, G. J. (2005). Radiofrequency denervation of lumbar facet joints in the treatment of chronic low back pain: A randomized, double-blind, sham lesion-controlled trial. Clinical Journal of Pain, 21, 335-344.

Effectiveness Studies: Spine Surgeries — Reviews & Meta-Analyses

Gibson J. N., & Waddell, G. (Updated January 6, 2007). Surgical intervention for lumbar disc prolapse. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2007 (2). Retrieved November 25, 2011, from The Cochrane Library, Wiley Interscience.

Mirza, S. K., & Deyo, R. A. (2007). Systematic review of randomized trials comparing lumbar fusion surgery to nonoperative care for treatment of chronic back pain. Spine, 32, 816-823.

Nikolaidis I., Fouyas, I. P., Sandercock, P. A., & Statham, P. F. (Updated December 14, 2008). Surgery for cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy. [Cochrane Review]. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2010 (1).

van Middelkoop, M., Rubinstein, S. M., Ostelo, R., van Tulder, M. W., Peul, W., Koes, B. W., & Verhagen, A. P. (2012). Surgery versus conservative care for neck pain: A systematic review. European Spine Journal, 22(1), 87-95. doi: 10.1007/s00586-012-2553-z

van Middelkoop, M., Rubinstein, S. M., Ostelo, R., van Tulder, M. W., Peul, W., Koes, B. W., & Verhagen, A. P. (2013). No additional value of fusion techniques on anterior discectomy for neck pain: A systematic review. Pain, 153, 2167-2173.

Verhagen, A. P., van Middelkoop, M, Rubinstein, S. M., Ostelo, R., Jacobs, W., Peul, W., Koes, B. W. van Tulder, M. W. (2013). Effect of various kinds of cervical spinal surgery on clinical outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain, 154, 2388-2396.

Effectiveness Studies: Spine Surgeries — Clinical Trials

Weinstein, J. N., Lurie, J. D., Tosteson, T. D., et al. (2008). Surgical vs. nonoperative treatment for lumbar disc herniation: Four-year results for the spine patient outcomes research trial (SPORT). Spine, 33, 2789-2800.

Weinstein, J. N., Tosteson, T. D., Lurie, J. D., et al. (2006). Surgical vs. nonoperative treatment for lumbar disk herniation: The spine patient outcomes research trial (SPORT). Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 2441-2450.

Fear-Avoidance Model

Fritz, J. M., George, S. Z., & Delitto, A. (2001). The role of fear-avoidance beliefs in acute low back pain: Relationships with current and future disability and work status. Pain, 94, 7-15.

Leeuw, M., Goossens, M. E., Linton, S. J., Crombez, G., Boersma, K., & Vlaeyen, J.W. (2007). The fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain: Current state of scientific evidence. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 77-94.

Vlaeyen, J. W. S. & Linton, S. J. (2000). Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: A state of the art. Pain, 85, 317-322.

Vlaeyen, J. W. S., Kole-Snijders, A. M. J., Boeren, R. G. B., & van Eek, H. (1995). Fear of movement/(re)injury in chronic low back pain and its relation to behavioral performance. Pain, 62, 363-372.

Healthcare Utilization: Chronic Pain

Brook, M. I., Deyo, R. A., Mirza, S. K., Turner, J. A., Comstock, B. A., Hollingworth, W., & Sullivan S. D. (2008). Expenditures and health status among adults with back and neck problems. Journal of the American Medical Association, 299, 656-664.

Interdisciplinary Pain Management

Turk, D. C., Stanos, S. P., Palermo, T. M., Paice, J. A., Jamison, R. N., Gordon, D. B., Cowan P., Covington, E. C., & Clark, M. E. (2010). Interdisciplinary Pain Management. Retrieved from: http://www.americanpainsociety.org/uploads/pdfs/2010%20Interdisciplinary%20White%20Paper-FINAL.pdf

MRI Validity Studies

Endean, A., Palmer, K. T., & Coggon, D. (2011). Potential of MRI findings to refine case definition for mechanical low back pain in epidemiological studies: A systematic review. Spine, 36, 160-169.

Modic, M. T., Obuchowski, N. A., Ross, J. S., Brant-Zawadzki, M. N., Groof, P. N., Mazanec, D. J., & Benzel, E. C. (2005). Acute low back pain and radiculopathy: MR imaging findings and their prognostic role and effect on outcome. Radiology, 237, 597-604.

Obesity and Chronic Pain

Wright, L. J., Schur, E., Noonan, C., Ahumada, S., Buchwald, D., & Afari, N. (2010). Chronic pain, overweight, and obesity: Findings from a community-based twin registry. Journal of Pain, 11(7), 628-635.

Opioid Abuse & Dependence

Compton, W. M. & Volkow, N. D. (2006). Major increases in opioid analgesic abuse in the United States: Concerns and strategies. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 81, 103-107.

Ives, T. J., Chelminski, P. R., Hammett-Stabler, C. A., Malone, R. M., Perhac, J. S., Potisek, N. M., Shilliday, B. B., DeWalt, D. A., & Pignone, M. P. (2006). Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: A prospective cohort study. BMC Health Services Research, 6(46). doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-6-46

White, A. G., Birnbaum, H. G., Mireva, M. N., Daher, S., Vallow., S., Schein, J., & Katz, N. (2005). Direct costs of opioid abuse in an insured population in the United States. Journal of Management Care Pharmacy, 11, 6, 469-479.

Opioid Overdose

Dunn, K. M., Saunders, K. W., Rutter, C. M., Banta-Green, C. J., Merrill, J. O., Sullivan, M. D., Weisner, C. M., Silverberg, M. J., Campbell, C. I., Psaty, B. M., & Von Korff, M. (2010). Overdose and prescribed opioids: Associations among chronic non-cancer pain patients. Annals of Internal Medicine, 152(2), 85-92. doi: 10.1059/0003-4819-152-2-201001190-00006

Okie, S. (2010). A flood of opioids, a rising tide of deaths. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(21), 1981-1985.

Practice Patterns

Bohnert, A. S., Valenstein, M., Bair, M. J., Ganoczy, D., McCarthy, J. F.,Ilgen, M. A., & Blow, F. C. (2011). Association between opioid prescribing patterns and opioid overdose-related deaths. Journal of the American Medical Association, 305, 13, 1315-1321.

Carey, T. S., Freburger, J. K., Holmes, G. M., Castel, L., Darter, J., Agans, R., Kalsbeek, W., & Jackman, A. (2009). A long way to go: Practice patterns and evidence in chronic low back pain care. Spine, 34, 7, 718-724.

Deyo, R. A., Mirza, S. K., Turner, J. A., & Martin B. I. (2009). Overtreating chronic back pain: Time to back off? Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 22, 1, 62-68.

Moseley, G. L. (2012). Teaching people about pain: Why do we keep beating around the bush? Pain Management, 2, 1, 1-3.

Sullivan, M. D., Edlund, M. J., Zhang, L., Unutzer, J., & Wells, K. B. (2006). Association between mental health disorders, problem drug use, and regular prescription opioid use. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 2087-2093.

Role of Stress in Pain

Alexander, J. K., DeVries, A. C., Kigerl, K. A., Dahlman, J. M., Popovich, P. G. (2009). Stress exacerbates neuropathic pain via glucocorticoid and NMDA receptor activation. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23, 851-860.

Arguelles, L. M., Afari, N., Buchwald, D., Clauw, D., Furner, S., & Goldberg, J. (2006). A twin study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and chronic widespread pain. Pain, 124, 150-157.

Blackburn-Munro, G. (2004). Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction as a contributory factor to chronic pain and depression. Current Pain and Headache Reports, 8, 116-124.

McBeth, J., Silman, A. J., Gupta, A., Chiu, Y. H., Ray, D., Morriss R., Dickens, C., King, Y., & MacFarlane, G. J. (2007). Moderation of psychosocial risk factors through dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis in the onset of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. Arthritis & Rheumatism, 56, 360-371.

McEwen, B. S. (2000). The neurobiology of stress: From serendipity to clinical relevance. Brain Research, 886, 172-189.

McFarlne, A. C. (2010). The long-term costs of traumatic stress: Intertwined physical and psychological consequences. World Psychiatry, 9, 3-10;

Meeus, M. & Nijs, J. (2007). Central sensitization: A biopsychosocial explanation for chronic widespread pain in patients with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinical Rheumatology, 26, 465-473.

Neugebauer, V. (2007). The amygdala: Different pain, different mechanisms. Pain, 127, 1-2.

Sternberg, E. M. & Wood, P.W. (1997). The mind-body interaction in disease. Scientific American, 7, 8-15.